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Sugar production

Normally, the sugar production is graded in three standards i.e., L, M & S. L-Grade stands for large crystal size sugar and is retained on 6/7mesh wire nettings. M-Grade stands for medium crystal size sugar and is retained on 8/10 mesh wire nettings. S-Grade stands for small crystal size sugar retained on 16 mesh wire nettings for the purpose of above stated sugar gradation,The mill has the latest most modern IC make sugar sizes /grader.

The mill has for long been known for its premium quality of sugar production. It has a good command over sizeable portion of sugar market in Phagwara and its surrounding areas. Its L-Grade sugar is widely preferred

Co Generation

Wahid Sandhar Sugar is a leading organization in the North India. This mill has developed its strength in power generation and raw sugar processing in addition to the production of white sugar in this mill from decade. We have capability to generate 12 MW with single turbine and export power to grid upto 8MW. Moreover, we have taken initiative to use biomass as fuel, which has given direct boost to the farmer's economy. Farmers have started to supply fuel to this mill rather than to burn in their field, which ultimately has increased their revenue. It is great initiative towards the development of area Wahid Sandhar Sugar is also capable to process raw sugar in this plant. Precision and modern technique has been adopted to process raw sugar in the off-season as well as in the crushing season. This mill has its competency to produce ultra white sugar.

Molasses

The molasses from which residual sugar cannot be economically recovered is termed as final molasses. Its quality, in general various from 4.5% on cane crushed and it depends upon the cane quality and processing. The mill has enough capacity for its storage. A good arrangement for its preservation also exists. As per the requirement, it is disposed off from time to time, to molasses based distilleries. it is also supplied to foundries cattle feed industries etc. against their demands.

The quality of molasses is determined on the basis of its T.R.S. content. T.R.S. stands for Total Reducing Sugars. In cane sugar industry T.R.S. in general, is found to vary from 40 to 45

Sugar Process

The sugar industry is essentially an agro industry basad on availability of sugarcane in the surrounding area.

The sugarcane contains not only sucrose but also numerous other dissolved substances, as well as cellulose or woody fibre .The percentage of sugar in the cane varies from 8 to 16 and depends to a great extent on the variety of cane, its maturity , condition of the soil , climate and agriculture practices followed.The composition of cane vary widely depending on the region , but fall generally within the following limits

Composition of cane :

Sugar - : 10 to 14%

Redncing sugar - : 0.5 to 2%

Organic matter - : 0.5 to 1%

Inorganic compounus - : 0.2 to 0.6%

Nitrogenous soules - : 0.5 to 1%

Ash - : 0.3 to 0.3%

Fibre - : 12 to16%

Water - :


Juice extracted from cane is an opague liquid due to air bubbles entangled in it .The colour of the juice Various from light grey to dark green depending on the colouring matter in the rind of the cane crashed . It contains a solution of all the soluble substances like sucrose fare particles of bagasse ,wax ,clay (adhering to cane), colouring matter and alhbumen.

The position of the normal cane juice falls with in the following limits


Water - : 75 to88%

Sucross - : 10 to 21%

Reducing sugar - : 0.3 to 3.0%

Organic matter than - : 0.5 to 1.0%


Other sugar

Inorganic compounds - : 0.2 to 0.6 %

Nitrogonin bodies - : 0.5 to 0.1%

Milling

The cane from the fields is brought to the mills by the farmers by trucks,

tractor, trollies or carts depeding upon the means available with the individuals farmers, Weighbriages are provided to detemine the net weight of the cane.

The cane is unloaded into the cane carrier. The cane is levelled by a kicker and then passed through the sets of revolving knives Which cut the cane into small pieces. It is further passed through the filerizer which turns the cane pieces into filerized form. This process is called preparation of cane before milling and this increases the efficiency of the milling plant in terms of better extraction and capacity . The prepared cane is crushed in mills which are driven by motor & steam turbines.

The juice coming out from Ist mill is undiluted and is termed as primary juice Water at 25% to 38% on cane is used as meceration at the last mill .The primary juice and secondary juice are mixed and screened to remove bagasse particles . The juice so obtained is measured through flowmeter and it is called as mixed juice or raw juice and it is sent for processing for the manufacture of sugar

Clarification

The mixed juice reccived from the mills contains soluble and insoluble impurities . it is dark in colour , viscous due to impuritieslike colouring matter , waxes , gums , pectins , proteins , also it contains colloidal matter and suspended organic impurities . the Juice is not fit to be worked for white sugar manufacture without suitable chemical treatment so it necessary to remove the maximum quantity of impurities from the juice at the earliest stages to obtain pure crystallized sugar.

The clarification of jouic is done for two purposes:-

Removal of impurities :

To precipitate out dissolved inorganic non – sugars present in the Juice and

b) To separate insoluble solid matter suspended in juice . This help to increase the availability of sugar .

2 . Bleaching Effect : After impurities are removed by the chemical treatment of Juice bleaching is done to render the juice brilliant and light in colour .

Process of clarificatin – sulphitation : The raw juice is heated to 70*c and then clarified with line and so2 gas, It is again heated to 102*c and pumped to clarifier, The clear juice so obtained is pumped to evaporator for concentration and the mud is sweetned-off in the o.c . filters

Evaporation

The water to the extent of 75% in clear juice is evaporated in the evaporation Section . The evaporating section consists of one vapour , cell and Two sets of quadruple effect evaporator . Also there is one spareVapour call . The live steam generator from the boilers is used to run the turbines and the exhaust steam so generated is feed to the first body of quintriple almost whole of the juice heatings and pan briling is done on the vapour of diffrent quintriple effects. the material obtained from the last quintriple effect is called as unsulphured syrup and it brix is around 55-60* it is further treated with so2 gas to reduce its PH the around 5.0 and to bleach its color . The meterial thus obtained is called sulphured syrup of golden colour.

Crystallization

After concentration of the juice in multiple effect evaporation and bleaching, the subsequent process is to turn the thick syrup into crystal form. This is done in a vacuum pan which is a single effect. Here we get a mixture of crystals and its mother liquor which is called massecuite.

To minimize losses in the final mother liquor called final molasses a system of boilings is adopted having three or four boilings depending on the sugar content of the cane. The low grade massecuities are boiled on the mother liquor of high grade massecutes. The massecutes boiled are called A, B & C where A indicates highest purity and C is the lowest in the system.

As soon as the batch of particular massecuite is ready, it is dropped into a long cylindrical open vessel called crystallizers. This is provided with tirring arrangement to prevent settling of sugar. Hero the massecuite is cooled, the time of cooling varies with the type of massecuite. The cooling of massecuite results in shifting of sugar from the mother liquor to the crystals and thus higher yield of crystals is obtained and in return the sugar escaping in the mother liquor is reduced.

Separation of Crystals

The massecuites A, B & C obtained are centrifugaled to separate crystals from its mother liquor. The mother liquor of higher purity is recycled in the process to extract sugar. The least purity mother liquor is called final molasses and is sent out to storage tanks. The final molasses is weighed and its sugar percentage is recorded for the assessment of losses in the boiling process. The sugar obtained from first higher purity massecuite is taken for bagging and sugar from low purity massecuite is recycled in the process. The recycling is necessary to produce good quality sugar and to minimize losses.

Drying, Grading, Weighment

The sugar is washed hot water with in the centrifugal machine,It is dropped and passed over a system of hoppers where the sugar comes into contact with hot air and cold air alternatively. The air removes the moisture from the sugar and dry sugar is obtained. The dry sugar is taken to the top of a grader with the held of a sugar elevator. The grader consists of a no. of vibrating screens of the different opening. On passing over the vibrating screens the sugar separates into different grades of large, medium and small sizes.

The grading of sugar is based on crystal size and color. The different grades of sugar is kept in separate lots in the godown. The grain size and colour is kept as per Indian sugar standard.

The sugar from grader is filled A– twill bags and weighed as 100 kgs. nett. The bags are stitched and sent to godown.


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